12 September 2014

X-ray diffraction

Last update: 06.X.2014


1895

Description: discovery of x-rays.
Title: Secondary Radiation from Gases Subject to X-Rays
Language: English
Source: Philosophical Magazine, 6th ser., vol.5, 685–698., 1903

 Über eine neue Art von Strahlen. Sitzungsber. Der Würzburger Physik-Medic. Gesellsch. 137, 132–141 (1895)


1903

Description: showed that the scattering of x-rays by gases depends on the molecular weight of the gas
Title: Secondary Radiation from Gases Subject to X-Rays
Language: English
Source: Internet Archive - Philosophical Magazine, 6th ser., vol.5, 685–698., 1903

The Conduction of Electricity Through Gases (Cambridge, 1903), p. 270.

1904

Description: measured the fractional energy loss due to scattering
Title:  Energy of Secondary Röntgen Radiation
Language: English
Source: Internet Archive - Philosophical Magazine, 6th ser., 7 (May 1904), 543–560.

contrary to the general assumption:
E. Rutherford and R.K. McClung, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, A196 (1901), 38–39.

1905

Description: observed the polarization of x-rays – indication that they are electromagnetic radiation.
Title: Polarized Röntgen radiation
Language: English
Source: Gallica - Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 204 (1905), 467.

Description:
Title: Secondary Röntgen Radiation
Language: English
Source: Internet Archive - Nature 71, pp.440-440 (1905)

1906

Description: observed the polarization of x-rays – indication that they are electromagnetic radiation.
Title: Polarization in Secondary Röntegen Radiation
Language: English
Source:  Proceedings of the royal Society, A77 (Jan. 1906), 247–255.

“The Nature of X-Rays,” in Nature, 76 (31 Oct. 1907), 661–662,
“Secondary Röntgen Rays and Atomic weight,” in Nature, 73 (15 Feb. 1906), 365.
“The Atomic Weight of Nickel,” in Nature, 75 (14 Feb. 1907), 368.
Barkla and sadler, “secondary X-Rays and the Atomic weight of Nickel,” in Philosophical Magazine, 6th ser., 14 (Sept, 1907), 408–422.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, A217 (1917), 315–360. Foreshadowed in “Problems of Radiation,” in Nature, 94 (18 Feb. 1914), 671–672:




1907

Description:
Author: Wilhelm Wien
Title: Über eine berechnung der wellenlänge der Röntgenstrahlen aus dem Planckschen energie element [About a calculation of the wavelength of X-rays from the Planck energy element]
Language: German
Source:  DigiZeitschriften - Nachrichten von der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Mathematisch-Physikalische Klasse, 1907, pp.598-601


1908

Description:
Author:  Johannes Stark
Title: The wavelength of Röntgen rays
Language: English
Source: Internet Archive - Nature 77, pp.320 (1908)


 1912

Description: Discovery of the Diffraction of X-Rays in Crystals. Laue argued that if the regular structure of atoms was the characteristic property of crystals, then the behavior of X radiation upon penetrating a crystal should be approximately the same as that of light upon striking a diffraction grating
Author: W. Friedrich, P. Knipping,, and M. Laue
Title: Interferenzerscheinungen bei Röntgenstrahlen [Interference phenomena in X-rays]
Language: German
Source: GallicaAnnalen der Physik, vol. 346, Issue 10, pp.971-988

Sitzungsberichte der Mathematisch-Physikalischen Classe der Königlich-Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu München , 1912, 2: 303-322

Description:
Author: Max Laue
Title: Eine quantitative Prüfung der Theorie für die Interferenzerscheinungen bei Röntgenstrahlen [A quantitative test of the theory for the interference phenomena in X-rays]
Language: German
Source: Gallica - Annalen der Physik Volume 346, Issue 10, pages 989–1002, 1913

Sitzungsberichte der Mathematisch-Physikalischen Klasse der Königlich-Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu München, 1912,16

Description: 
Title: Über die Beugung der Röntgenstrahlen [About the diffraction of X-ray]
Language: German
Source: Gallica - Annalen der Physik, Volume 343, pages 473–506 (1912)


1913



Description:
Title: The Diffraction of Short Electromagnetic Waves by a Crystal
Language: English
Source:  Internet Archive - Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 17,pp. 43–57.

X-ray ionization spectrometer

Description:
Author: Henry Moseley
Title: High-Frequency Spectra of the Elements, part I
Language: English
Source: Internet Archive - Philosophical magazine, 1913, pp.1024

Description: Discovers the splitting of spectral lines in an electric field. (made independently by Antonino Lo Surdo)
Title:  Beobachtungen über den Effekt des elektrischen Feldes auf Spektrallinien I. Quereffekt [Observations of the effect of the electric field on spectral lines I. Transverse effect]
Language: German
Source: Gallica - Annalen der Physik, vol. 43, pp. 965-983 (1914).

Sitzungsberichten der Kgl. Preuss. Akad. d. Wiss. (1913)

1914

Description:
Author: William Henry Bragg and
Title: The absorption coefficients of X rays
Language: English
Source: Internet ArchivePhilosophical magazine, vol.28, pp.626, (1914)

Description:
Author: Henry Moseley
Title: The high-frequency spectra of the elements, part II
Language: English
Source:  Internet Archive - Philosophical magazine, vol. 27, 703 (1914)


1915


Description: discovered an inverse proportionality between the limit wavelength and the tube high voltage
Title: On X-Ray Wave-Lengths
Language: English
Source:  ??? - Physical Review,1915, 6 (2): 166–172

Description:
Title: The Distribution of the Electron in Atoms
Language: English
Source: ???

1917

Description:
Title: The Intensity of X-Ray Reflection, and the Distribution of the Electrons in Atoms
Language: English
Source: Internet Archive - Phys. Rev. 9, 29 – Published 1 January 1917

1921


Description: time-resolved spectroscopy
Author:  C. Ramsauer and F. Wolf
Title: Leuchtdauer der Spektrallinien im erlöschenden Bogen [Lighting duration of the spectral lines in the dying arch]
Language: English
Source: Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena - Annalen der Physik, Volume 371, Issue 22, pages 373–395, 1922

1922


Description:  used X-ray spectra to chemically analyze minerals
Author: Assar Hadding
Title: Mineralienanlyse nach röntgenspektroskopischer Methode [Mineral analysis by X-ray spectroscopic methods]
Language: English
Source: ??? - Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, Volume 122, Issue 1, pages 195–200, 12 Juli 1922

1923


Description:
Title: The Spectrum of Scattered X-Rays
Language: English
Source:  Indiana University - Physical Review, vol.22, p.409, 1923

Description:
Title: A Quantum Theory of the Scattering of X-Rays by Light Elements
Language: English
Source: American Institute of Physics - Physical Review, vol.21, p.483, 1923


 
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Description:
Author: B.D.Cullity
Title: Elements Of X Ray Diffraction
Language: English

Description:
Author: Dale Fitting
Title: High-energy, transmission x-ray diffraction for monitoring turbine-blade solidifaction
Language: English

1915 Bragg, X-rays and crystal structure Internet Archive

X-Ray Crystallography

Description:
Author:
Title: 
Language: English
Source: Internet Archive