28 November 2014

Ionizing and radiating potentials

Last update: 27.XI.2014

Content:
1. By dates
2. By elements

Ionize - ???

Ionizing potential - the least potential through which an electron, starting from rest, must fall, to asquire sufficient kinetic energy to enable it to ionize a normal molecule on impact

Radiating potential -  the least kinetic energ which electron must have, so that, on impact whith a molecule, it may emit monochromaric radiation characteristic of the molecule. (It is generally agreed that radiation occurs afterwards as the molecule returns to its normal state)

1.By dates

1913



Bohr's ideas about stationary states

The theory of spectra and atomic constitution



1914

Description: demonstrates the discrete energy values in which an atom may
exist (Franck-Hertz experiment).
Title: Über Zusammenstöße zwischen Elektronen und Molekülen des Quecksilberdampfes und die Ionisierungsspannung desselben
Language: German
Source:  - erhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft (in German) 16: 457–467
Translation: On the collisions between electrons and molecules of mercury vapor and the ionization potential of the same
Source:  - A translation of this paper is given in  Boorse, Henry A.; Motz, Lloyd (1966). "46. The Quantum Theory is Tested". The World of the Atom 1. Basic Books. pp. 766–778

1919

Description: applied the Franck-Hertz technique of accelerated electrons to the first precise determination of the ionization potential of the helium atom
Author: James Franck, Paul Knipping
Title: Die Ionisierungsspannung des Heliums
Language: German
Source:  - Phys. Zeits. 20 1919  pp. 481–488

2. By elements


Hydrogen

1913

Description:
Author: Franck,  Hertz
Title: Über Zusammenstöße zwischen Gasmolekülen und langsamen Elektronen
Language: German
Source: ??? - Verhandlungen der Deutschen physikalischen Gesellschaft , vol.15, p.34, 1913
1916

Description:
Author: Frederick Goucher
Title: Ionization by Impact in Mercury Vapor and Other Gases. I. The Direct Measurement of the Ionizing Potentials
Language: English
Source: ??? - Physical Review, vol. 8, Issue 5, pp. 561-573 (1916)

1917

Description:
Author: A.Hughes, A.Dixon
Title: The Ionizing Potentials of Gases
Language: English
Source: ??? - Physical Review, vol.10, p.495 (1917)

Description:
Author: Fred Bishop
Title: The Ionization Potential of Electrodes in Various Gases
Language: English
Source:  ??? - Physical Review, vol. 10, Issue 3, pp. 244-252

Description:
Author: Bergen Davis and F. S. Goucher.
Title: Ionization and Excitation of Radiation by Electron Impact in Mercury Vapor and Hydrogen
Language: English
Source: ??? - Physical Review, vol. 10, Issue 2, pp. 101-115

1919

Description:
Author:Franck, Paul Knipping and Thea Krüger
Title: Über einen Zusammenhang zwischen Stoßionisation und Dissoziationsarbeit neutraler Moleküle
Language: German
Source:  - Verhandlungen der Deutschen physikalischen Gesellschaft (2) , vol.21, p.728-732, 1919, issue No. 21/22

1920

Description:
Author: Frank Horton and Ann Davies
Title: An Investigation of the Effects of Electron Collisions with Platinum and with Hydrogen, to Ascertain Whether the Production of Ionisation from Platinum is due to Occluded Hydrogen
Language: English
Source: Internet Archive -Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences1920, vol.97, pp.23-43

Description:
Author: F. Mohler and Paul Foote
Title: The ionization and resonance potentials of nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen
Language: English
Source: ??? - Journal of the Optical Society of America, Vol. 4, Issue 2, pp. 49-52 (1920)

Description:
Author: G.Stead and B.Gossling
Title: On the relative ionization potentials of gases as observed in thermionic valves
Language: English
Source: Internet Archive -Philosophical Magazine Series 6 Volume 40, Issue 238, 1920, pp.413-425

Description:
Author: Clifton Found
Title: Ionization Potentials of Argon, Nitrogen, Carbon Monoxide, Helium, Hydrogen and Mercury and Iodine Vapors
Language: English
Source: Internet Archive - Physical Review, vol. 16, Issue 1, pp. 41

1921

Description:
Author: K. Compton and P. Olmstead
Title: Note on the Radiating and Ionizing Potentials of Hydrogen
Language: English
Source: ??? - Physical Review, vol. 17, Issue 1, p. 45




 Helium

1913

Description:
Author: Franck,  Hertz
Title: Messung der Ionisierungsspannung in verschiedenen Gasen
Language: German
Source: ??? - Verhandlungen der Deutschen physikalischen Gesellschaft (2), vol.15, p.34, 1913

1916

Description:
Author: Charles Bazzoni
Title: Experimental determination of the ionization potential of helium
Language: English
Source: Internet Archive - Philosophical Magazine Series 6 Volume 32, Issue 192, p.566

1919

Description:
Author: H.Rentschler
Title: Resonance and Ionization Potentials for Electrons in the Monatomic Gases Argon, Neon and Helium
Language: German
Source: ??? - Physical Review, vol. 14, Issue 6, p.503


Description:
Author: James Franck and Paul Knipping
Title: Die Ionisierungsspannung des Heliums
Language: German
Source: ??? -  Physikalische Zeitschrift, vol.20, p.481

Description:
Author: Frank Horton and Ann Davies
Title: An Experimental Determination of the Ionisation Potential for Electrons in Helium
Language: English
Source: Internet Archive -Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, vol.95, p.408


1920

Description:
Author: James Franck and Paul Knipping
Title: Über die Anregungsspannungen des Heliums
Language: German
Source: ??? -  Zeitschrift für Physik, Volume 1, Issue 4, pp.320-332
Description:
Author: Clifton Found
Title: Ionization Potentials of Argon, Nitrogen, Carbon Monoxide, Helium, Hydrogen and Mercury and Iodine Vapors
Language: English
Source: Internet Archive - Physical Review, vol. 16, Issue 1, pp. 41

Description:
Author: G.Stead and B.Gossling
Title: On the relative ionization potentials of gases as observed in thermionic valves
Language: English
Source: Internet Archive -Philosophical Magazine Series 6 Volume 40, Issue 238, 1920, pp.413-425


Description:
Author: K. Compton
Title: Ionization and production of radiation by electron impacts in helium investigated by a new method
Language: English
Source: ??? -Philosophical Magazine Series 6 Volume 40, Issue 239, 1920, p.553-568



 Argon

1913

Description:
Author: Franck,  Hertz
Title: Messung der Ionisierungsspannung in verschiedenen Gasen
Language: German
Source: ??? - Verhandlungen der Deutschen physikalischen Gesellschaft (2), vol.15, p.34, 1913


1919

Description:
Author: H.Rentschler
Title: Resonance and Ionization Potentials for Electrons in the Monatomic Gases Argon, Neon and Helium
Language: German
Source: Internet Archive - Physical Review, vol. 14, Issue 6, p.503

1920

Description:
Author: Frank Horton and Ann Davies
Title: An Experimental Determination of the Critical Electron Velocities for the Production of Radiation and Ionisation on Collision with Argon Atoms
Language: English
Source: Internet Archive - Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences,1920, Volume: 97 Issue: 681, pp.1-23

Description:
Author: Clifton Found
Title: Ionization Potentials of Argon, Nitrogen, Carbon Monoxide, Helium, Hydrogen and Mercury and Iodine Vapors
Language: English
Source: Internet Archive - Physical Review, vol. 16, Issue 1, pp. 41

Description:
Author: G.Stead and B.Gossling
Title: On the relative ionization potentials of gases as observed in thermionic valves
Language: English
Source: Internet Archive -Philosophical Magazine Series 6 Volume 40, Issue 238, 1920, pp.413-425


 Neon

1913

Description:
Author: Franck,  Hertz
Title: Messung der Ionisierungsspannung in verschiedenen Gasen
Language: German
Source: ??? - Verhandlungen der Deutschen physikalischen Gesellschaft (2), vol.15, p.34, 1913


1919

Description:
Author: H.Rentschler
Title: Resonance and Ionization Potentials for Electrons in the Monatomic Gases Argon, Neon and Helium
Language: German
Source: ??? - Physical Review, vol. 14, Issue 6, p.503


Description:
Author: Frank Horton and Ann Davies
Title: The Effects of Electron Collisions with Atmospheric Neon
Language: English
Source: Internet Archive - Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences,1920, Volume: 98 Issue: 689, pp.124-146


 Nitrogen


1913

Description:
Author: Franck,  Hertz
Title: Messung der Ionisierungsspannung in verschiedenen Gasen
Language: German
Source: ??? - Verhandlungen der Deutschen physikalischen Gesellschaft (2), vol.15, p.34, 1913

1916

Description:
Author: Frederick Goucher
Title: Ionization by Impact in Mercury Vapor and Other Gases. I. The Direct Measurement of the Ionizing Potentials
Language: English
Source: ??? - Physical Review, vol. 8, Issue 5, pp. 561-573 (1916)

1917

Description:
Author: A.Hughes, A.Dixon
Title: The Ionizing Potentials of Gases
Language: English
Source: ??? - Physical Review, vol.10, p.495 (1917)

Description:
Author: Fred Bishop
Title: 
Language: English
Source:  ??? - Physical Review, vol. 9, Issue ?, pp.567

1919

Description:
Author: Bergen Davis and F. S. Goucher.
Title: Ionization and Excitation of Radiation by Electron Impact in Nitrogen
Language: English
Source: ??? - Physical Review, vol. 13, Issue 1, pp. 1


Description:
Author: E(noch?) Karrer
Title: 
Language: English
Source: ??? - Physical Review, vol. 13, Issue ?, pp.297
H.Rentchler, Ionizing Potentials of Argon, Neon and Helium , Physical Review, vol. 13, Issue ?, pp.297-298

Description:
Author: H. Smith
Title: The Radiating Potentials of Nitrogen
Language: English
Source:  ??? - Physical Review, vol. 14, Issue 5, pp.409

1920

Description:
Author: Clifton Found
Title: Ionization Potentials of Argon, Nitrogen, Carbon Monoxide, Helium, Hydrogen and Mercury and Iodine Vapors
Language: English
Source: ??? - Physical Review, vol. 16, Issue 1, pp.41

Description:
Author: F. Mohler and Paul Foote
Title: The ionization and resonance potentials of nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen
Language: English
Source: ??? - Journal of the Optical Society of America, Vol. 4, Issue 2, pp. 49-52 (1920)

Description:
Author: G.Stead and B.Gossling
Title: On the relative ionization potentials of gases as observed in thermionic valves
Language: English
Source: Internet Archive -Philosophical Magazine Series 6 Volume 40, Issue 238, 1920, pp.413-425

 Nitrous Oxide

1917


Description:
Author: Fred Bishop
Title: 
Language: English
Source:  ??? - Physical Review, vol. 9, Issue ?, pp.567


 Oxygen

1913

Description:
Author: Franck,  Hertz
Title: Über Zusammenstöße zwischen Gasmolekülen und langsamen Elektronen
Language: German
Source: ??? - Verhandlungen der Deutschen physikalischen Gesellschaft , vol.15, p.34, 1913

1917

Description:
Author: A.Hughes, A.Dixon
Title: The Ionizing Potentials of Gases
Language: English
Source: ??? - Physical Review, vol.10, p.495 (1917)

Description:
Author: Fred Bishop
Title: The Ionization Potential of Electrodes in Various Gases
Language: English
Source:  ??? - Physical Review, vol. 10, Issue 3, pp. 244-252

1920

Description:
Author: F. Mohler and Paul Foote
Title: The ionization and resonance potentials of nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen
Language: English
Source: ??? - Journal of the Optical Society of America, Vol. 4, Issue 2, pp. 49-52 (1920)


 Mercury


Description:
Author:
Title: 
Language: English
Source: Internet Archive -

 Sodium


Description:
Author:
Title: 
Language: English
Source: Internet Archive -

 Iodine


Description:
Author:
Title: 
Language: English
Source: Internet Archive -

 Carbon Monoxide


Description:
Author:
Title: 
Language: English
Source: Internet Archive -

 Hydrochloric Acid Gas


Description:
Author:
Title: 
Language: English
Source: Internet Archive -

Metallic vapors

Na
K
Cd
Zn
Mg
Hg
Ca
Tl
Pb
Rb
Cs
As
N2
O2
H2
P
I
S


Franck,  Hertz
Verhand. Deut. Physik, Ges., 15, p.373, 1913
Verhand. Deut. Physik, Ges., 16, p.12, 1914
Verhand. Deut. Physik, Ges., 16, p.457, 1914
English translation: www.if.ufrj.br
Verhand. Deut. Physik, Ges., 16, p.512, 1914

---------------
1. Bulletin of the National Research Council, vol.2, 1921, p.128 and next
2. The Historical Development of Quantum Theory, Google Books, p. 405
3. Representing Electrons: A Biographical Approach to Theoretical Entities, Google Books, p.146

1919, The radiating potentials of nitrogen, Internet Archive
2010, Franck-Hertz experiment in magnetic field, arxiv.org
1922, The origin of spectra, Internet Archive
1937, Atomic Spectra and Atomic Structure, Internet Archive
1920, Ionization and resonance potentials of some nonmetallic elements, Internet Archive
1921, Report on photo-electricity, including ionizing and radiating potentials and related effects, Internet Archive

Characteristic Soft X-rays from Arcs in Gases and Vapors, S425, p. 471, (December 1921)
Mohler, F. L.; Foote, Paul D.


Description:
Author:
Title: 
Language: English
Source: Internet Archive -